5 November is the anniversary of the invasion of the Maori settlement of Parihaka, Taranaki in 1881.

I regularly teach a course called “Violence and Nonviolence in the Christian Tradition” at Pacific Theological College. In this course I include a session on “Nonviolent Resistance” looking in detail at what happened at Parihaka and how that can inspire Christian nonviolent resistance against injustice as well as reconciliation. For those interested to learn more here is are some entry-level links followed by lists of videos worth watching and my class reading list:



  • Bergin, Helen. 2010. “Edward Schillebeeckx and the Suffering Human Being.” International Journal of Public Theology 4 (4):466–482.
  • Buchanan, Rachel. 2011. “Why Gandhi Doesn’t Belong at Wellington Railway Station.” Journal of Social History 44 (4):1077–1093.
  • Elsmore, Bronwyn. [1985] 2000. Like Them That Dream: The Maori and the Old Testament. Auckland: Reed Books.
  • Elsmore, Bronwyn. 1999. Mana from Heaven: A Century of Maori Prophets in New Zealand. Auckland: Reed Books.
  • Gadd, Bernard. 1966. “The Teachings of Te Whiti O Rongomai, 1831-1907.” The Journal of the Polynesian Society 75 (4):445–457.
  • Guy, Laurie. 2011. Shaping Godzone: Public Issues and Church Voices in New Zealand 1840-2000. Wellington: Victoria University Press.
  • Hohaia, Te Miringa, Gregory O’Brien and Lara Strongman, eds. 2001. Parihaka: The Art of Passive Resistance. Wellington: City Gallery Wellington; Victoria University Press.
  • Keenan, Danny. ‘Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III, Erueti’, first published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, vol. 2, 1993, and updated online in November, 2012. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/2t34/te-whiti-o-rongomai-iii-erueti (accessed 25 August 2017).
  • Keenan, Danny. 2015. Te Whiti O Rongomai and the Resistance of Parihaka. Wellington: Huia.
  • Mamak, Alexander, Ahmed Ali with Richard Bedford. 1979. Race Class and Rebellion in the South Pacific. Sydney: George Allen and Unwin, 1979.
  • Mitcalfe, Barry. 1963. Nine New Zealanders. Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs.
  • Parihaka and The Parihaka Pa Pakainga Trust and The Crown. 2017 “Parihaka Te Kawenata o Rongo, Deed of Reconciliation” https://justice.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Publications/2017-06-09-Parihaka-Te-Kawanata-o-Rongo-Deed-of-Reconciliation.pdf
  • Riseborough, Hazel. 2002. Days of Darkness: Taranaki, 1878-1884. Auckland: Penguin.
  • Scott, Dick. 1975. Ask That Mountain: The Story of Parihaka. Auckland: Heinemann/​Southern Cross.
  • Smith, Ailsa. ‘Tohu Kakahi’, first published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, vol. 2, 1993. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/2t44/tohu-kakahi (accessed 25 August 2017)
  • Waitangi Tribunal. 1996. The Taranaki Report: Kaupapa Tuatahi Wellington: Legislation Direct. ONLINE: https://forms.justice.govt.nz/search/Documents/WT/wt_DOC_68453721/Taranaki%201996.compressed.pdf (accessed 25 August 2017)
  • Warne, Kennedy. “Why Wasn’t I Told.” New Zealand Geographic ONLINE: https://www.nzgeo.com/stories/parihaka

Did I miss anything? Let me know in the comments if you’d add anything to this list. Thanks.