Parihaka Sources and Resources

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5 November is the anniversary of the invasion of the Maori settlement of Parihaka, Taranaki in 1881.

I regularly teach a course called “Violence and Nonviolence in the Christian Tradition” at Pacific Theological College. In this course I include a session on “Nonviolent Resistance” looking in detail at what happened at Parihaka and how that can inspire Christian nonviolent resistance against injustice as well as reconciliation. For those interested to learn more here is are some entry-level links followed by lists of videos worth watching and my class reading list:

Watching

Reading

  • Bergin, Helen. 2010. “Edward Schillebeeckx and the Suffering Human Being.” International Journal of Public Theology 4 (4):466–482.
  • Buchanan, Rachel. 2011. “Why Gandhi Doesn’t Belong at Wellington Railway Station.” Journal of Social History 44 (4):1077–1093.
  • Elsmore, Bronwyn. [1985] 2000. Like Them That Dream: The Maori and the Old Testament. Auckland: Reed Books.
  • Elsmore, Bronwyn. 1999. Mana from Heaven: A Century of Maori Prophets in New Zealand. Auckland: Reed Books.
  • Gadd, Bernard. 1966. “The Teachings of Te Whiti O Rongomai, 1831-1907.” The Journal of the Polynesian Society 75 (4):445–457.
  • Guy, Laurie. 2011. Shaping Godzone: Public Issues and Church Voices in New Zealand 1840-2000. Wellington: Victoria University Press.
  • Hohaia, Te Miringa, Gregory O’Brien and Lara Strongman, eds. 2001. Parihaka: The Art of Passive Resistance. Wellington: City Gallery Wellington; Victoria University Press.
  • Keenan, Danny. ‘Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III, Erueti’, first published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, vol. 2, 1993, and updated online in November, 2012. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/2t34/te-whiti-o-rongomai-iii-erueti (accessed 25 August 2017).
  • Keenan, Danny. 2015. Te Whiti O Rongomai and the Resistance of Parihaka. Wellington: Huia.
  • Mamak, Alexander, Ahmed Ali with Richard Bedford. 1979. Race Class and Rebellion in the South Pacific. Sydney: George Allen and Unwin, 1979.
  • Mitcalfe, Barry. 1963. Nine New Zealanders. Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs.
  • Parihaka and The Parihaka Pa Pakainga Trust and The Crown. 2017 “Parihaka Te Kawenata o Rongo, Deed of Reconciliation” https://justice.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Publications/2017-06-09-Parihaka-Te-Kawanata-o-Rongo-Deed-of-Reconciliation.pdf
  • Riseborough, Hazel. 2002. Days of Darkness: Taranaki, 1878-1884. Auckland: Penguin.
  • Scott, Dick. 1975. Ask That Mountain: The Story of Parihaka. Auckland: Heinemann/​Southern Cross.
  • Smith, Ailsa. ‘Tohu Kakahi’, first published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, vol. 2, 1993. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/2t44/tohu-kakahi (accessed 25 August 2017)
  • Waitangi Tribunal. 1996. The Taranaki Report: Kaupapa Tuatahi Wellington: Legislation Direct. ONLINE: https://forms.justice.govt.nz/search/Documents/WT/wt_DOC_68453721/Taranaki%201996.compressed.pdf (accessed 25 August 2017)
  • Warne, Kennedy. “Why Wasn’t I Told.” New Zealand Geographic ONLINE: https://www.nzgeo.com/stories/parihaka

Did I miss anything? Let me know in the comments if you’d add anything to this list. Thanks.

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Unlimited competition is wrong

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Reginald John Campbell on free market business competition from the sermon “Christianity and the Social Order” from City Temple Sermons (1903):

Unlimited competition is wrong. There is a place for competition, but after a certain point has been reached competition becomes tyranny. If there is any man here who is mainly responsible for the future of a small business house he will know what I mean, if I use him as illustration. You go to the promoter of a big concern that is about to crush you, and say, “I cannot hold out against you. What am I to do?” “You must make over your business to me on such and such terms.” ” But that means ruin to me!” “Can’t help it; it’s all fair; you’re competing with me, and the better will win.” Does it not seem a hollow mockery? The better does not win; the stronger does. In fact, the community will be more likely to lose if the big house wins than if the little one does. You are having to pay more today for certain commodities just because of the victory of the big concern over the little one, and yet under unlimited competition the big concern is sure to win the victory all the time. Where is the remedy? That is for you to say, member of Parliament ; it is for you to say, leader of County Council, municipal organiser; that is what you are there for, not for your own interests. But if Jesus Christ stood, and he really does, where I stand this morning, He would say to you, as He said in the days of old, under other conditions, in other terms, but with the same meaning and the same principle. Unlimited competition is wrong; you have no business to crush the weak as if he had no rights against the strong.

SOURCE: https://archive.org/stream/citytemplesermon00camp#page/102/mode/2up

Reflection in PTC Chapel on Acts 8:26-40 (23 April 2018)

Reading – Acts 8:26-40 (NRSV)

26 Then an angel of the Lord said to Philip, “Get up and go toward the south to the road that goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza.” (This is a wilderness road.) 27 So he got up and went. Now there was an Ethiopian eunuch, a court official of the Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, in charge of her entire treasury. He had come to Jerusalem to worship 28 and was returning home; seated in his chariot, he was reading the prophet Isaiah. 29 Then the Spirit said to Philip, “Go over to this chariot and join it.” 30 So Philip ran up to it and heard him reading the prophet Isaiah. He asked, “Do you understand what you are reading?” 31 He replied, “How can I, unless someone guides me?” And he invited Philip to get in and sit beside him. 32 Now the passage of the scripture that he was reading was this:

“Like a sheep he was led to the slaughter,
and like a lamb silent before its shearer,
so he does not open his mouth.
33 In his humiliation justice was denied him.
Who can describe his generation?
For his life is taken away from the earth.”

34 The eunuch asked Philip, “About whom, may I ask you, does the prophet say this, about himself or about someone else?” 35 Then Philip began to speak, and starting with this scripture, he proclaimed to him the good news about Jesus. 36 As they were going along the road, they came to some water; and the eunuch said, “Look, here is water! What is to prevent me from being baptized?” 38 He commanded the chariot to stop, and both of them, Philip and the eunuch, went down into the water, and Philip baptized him. 39 When they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord snatched Philip away; the eunuch saw him no more, and went on his way rejoicing. 40 But Philip found himself at Azotus, and as he was passing through the region, he proclaimed the good news to all the towns until he came to Caesarea.


Reflection

This is an extraordinary and magical story. Saint Philip the Evangelist, as he has come to be known, is whisked into the scene like a spiritual superhero, coming to baptize an exotic Ethiopian, and just as quickly as he appeared, he is gone to complete another mission.

But as fantastic as the scene is, there is much food for thought here about the nature of God, the church, its sacraments, and its mission. But the interest is not only to do with doctrine but also our relationship to the Spirit of God.

That Philip follows the initial call to him to arise and go, shows his willingness to listen to the Spirit and to act on its promptings. There is no debate or questioning – just an apparent simple obedience and willingness to do as the Spirit asks.

When Philip heads into a wilderness area we might recall to mind Isaiah 40:3:

“A voice cries out: “In the wilderness prepare the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.”

This story not only fulfills the prophecies of Isaiah regarding geographical data, but in doing shows that Isaiah is a reliable source of prophecy regarding the events of the Jesus and the early church. And, as we shall see, the relationship to Isaiah is throughout this passage and cannot be accidental.

It is no accident, then, that the Ethiopian Eunuch is reading from Isaiah as he trundles along in this chariot (an amazing feat of resistance to motion sickness).

Philip was invited abroad the chariot, probably because he knew what he was talking about. His study of scripture and theology had prepared him well for this mission. He was able to share his knowledge of the Gospel, making the necessary connections between the Hebrew Scripture and the Gospel of Jesus. His learning, as ours should be, was guided by this mission. Our teaching and learning here at PTC should have this end in mind, the ability to share the Gospel and to be the guide that the world needs to the truth.

The Eunuch responds to the Gospel message with a desire to be baptized. He asks:

“What is to prevent me from being baptized?”

They both get into the water and the Eunuch is baptized by Philip.

To the Eunuch’s question, there is no recorded answer from Philip. We might speculate about Philip’s response. His answer could only have taken one of two forms.

The first would have been: “There is no reason to prevent you from baptized – let’s do it now!” That would make sense as that is what appears to have happened. Such a simple response causes practical and theological problems for the churches’ practice of baptism (which is why verse 37 may have been inserted into the Western text)

That is why we must consider the other sort of answer. This alternative could have been – “Um, you cannot be baptized because ….”

Churches have several reasons why people cannot be baptized – including that the person has not completed catechism class, or that they have not made a confession of faith (which excludes infants).

When Philip baptized the Eunuch he created a new church member, and perhaps a new church. Philip did not stick around to make sure the Eunuch was educated in church policies and baptism regulations, and so on. He did not tell the Eunuch what time worship should be on a Sunday or whether women could be ordained or not.

The Eunuch went away rejoicing unencumbered by rules and regulations for this church. For him it appears having the Scriptures and the Holy Spirit was enough.

Regardless of what message he took home, he does leave us the legacy of his question to Philip: “What is to prevent me from being baptized?” This question shows that the Eunuch already had that freedom in his heart that only the Holy Spirit gives. The question itself shows a soul so ready for the spirit and the Spirit’s freedom it cannot entertain any obstacle to baptism and acceptance of the Spirit of freedom.

We must take this question to heart in our churches in our time.

What is to stop the Holy Spirit moving in our churches? When Jesus promised the gift of the Holy Spirit he did not indicate in detail what this Spirit would do. The early church was not disappointed. From Pentecost to the other events such as this, the Holy Spirit was busy making new disciples and converting people and uniting them into the church.

What have we done with the Holy Spirit? Have we let it move freely animating the church, or have we tried to restrict the spirit.

What is to prevent….? Asking this question in a church or even a faculty meeting can be awkward. There are any  number of rules, regulations, policies, canons, decrees, cultural practices, and Bible verses that can be used to prevent you from doing any new and creative thing. Sadly today the Spirit is being kept out of the church. Nowadays churches would have a very quick answers to the Eunuch – he cannot be baptized because our rules disallow it. He cannot preach or teach or be a leader  and so on and so on…

This passage is also a powerful message of inclusion for the church. Even today it has the power to upset things.

Consider who this man was. Was he even a man? A eunuch is not a complete man. In ancient times a eunuch might have been useful in the Harem or Official role, but they were  often looked down upon. Lucian of Samosata wrote of eunuchs that they were “monstrous” and “alien to human nature”. Eunuchs were not considered whole men – and called names (much like homosexuals have been vilified in our own time).

Biblical law (such as Deuteronomy 23) barred eunuchs from worship in the assembly and Leviticus denies them from being priests (Lev 21:17-21). I am not concerned here with the possible contradiction in our text that the Eunuch in fact could not worship in the temple, as Luke describes in verse 27. What concerns me is that he could now find a complete home in the church despite his own incompleteness.

Once again that the Eunuch is reading Isaiah is significant here. For in this prophecy there is a place for the Eunuch and foreigner’s in the house of God.

Isaiah 56:3-5:

3 Do not let the foreigner joined to the LORD say,
“The LORD will surely separate me from his people”;
and do not let the eunuch say,
“I am just a dry tree.”

4 For thus says the LORD:
To the eunuchs who keep my sabbaths,
who choose the things that please me
and hold fast my covenant,

5 I will give, in my house and within my walls,
a monument and a name
better than sons and daughters;
I will give them an everlasting name
that shall not be cut off.

Such radical inclusion shows that we must be careful of proof-texting in order to exclude people from the love of God.

Does this text mean that Hebrew practice had changed and become more liberal, or that a more inclusive community of God was being promised. Either one is good news for the Eunuch.

In the end Philip was snatched away to Azotus. This is reminiscent of the prophets of Elijah (1 Kings 18:12) and Elisha (2 Kings 2:16), who had reputations of being whisked away by the Spirit. Hence this dramatic exit is not simply a narrative trick of moving a character from one place to another, but provides further reasons why Christianity is both continuous with Judaism and goes beyond it.

Philip’s mission in this passage is about following the movement of the Spirit; as the church’s mission should be today.

The Eunuch was then without Philip, but was left with the Holy Spirit in his baptism.

This Spirit of God, as promised by Jesus which animated them both, remains with us and can be an agent of freedom today, if only we have an open heart and mind.

Amen

Luther on the Scientific and Theological Understanding of the Rainbow

Here is Martin Luther making a point about the difference between the philosophical (read ‘scientific’) and theological understandings of the rainbow from Genesis 9:13:

This sign [the rainbow] should remind us to give thanks to God. For as often as the rainbow appears, it preaches to the entire world with a loud voice about the wrath which once moved God to destroy the whole world. It also gives comfort, that we may have the conviction that God is kindly inclined toward us again and will never again make use of so horrible a punishment. Thus it teaches the fear of God and faith at the same time, the greatest virtues. Philosophy has no knowledge of these and carries on a discussion solely about the material and the formal cause; it does not know the final cause of this beautiful creature. But theology points it out. (Luther’s Works, Volume 2: Lectures on Genesis, Chapters 6–14, page 148.

On causes, here Luther refers to Aristotle’s four causes, three of which are mentioned here:

  • material cause
  • formal cause
  • final cause

(for more detail on those, you may refer to “Aristotle on Causality” at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

In brief, Luther is making the argument that the speculations of the scientists about the rainbow’s shape, colours, appearance, and its relationship to clouds, ignore the purpose of the rainbow in God’s design. Science is limited in the questions it can answer about purposes or final causes. It is very good at answering questions of how, but not questions of why. Theology deals with final causes better than science does.

In a modern day application of Luther’s point, we might consider how this applies to phenomena related to climate change. For instance, scientists can tell how a cyclone develops, moves, and operates, but not why it appears when and where it does. Luther would say that this happens according to the will of God – not a popular notion in our science-focused era.

That Christianity and Anarchism Should Be Friends

From Socialism and the Ethics of Jesus by Henry C. Vedder, 1914

SOURCE: http://www.archive.org/stream/socialismethicso00vedd#page/174/mode/1up

By its hostility to Christianity, Anarchy has rejected the only ally that promises the least encouragement to the practical working of its social theories. For, if the time ever comes when men can live here on earth in a society in which law shall be unknown and force unnecessary, it will be because the principles of Jesus Christ have become so implanted in human hearts that all men love their neighbors as themselves. Where that law prevails, it is true that no other law will be needed, and there will no longer be a social problem, because no man will look on his own things, but every man also on the things of others.

John Wesley’s Rules for Stewards

Here are John Wesley’s rules for church stewards. Which do you think are still relevant today?

(From The Journal of John Wesley, Volume 3, pp. 300-301. June 1747. Source: https://archive.org/stream/a613690403wesluoft#page/300/mode/2up)

Thursday 4 June 1747: I reduced the sixteen stewards to seven, to whom were given the following instructions:

  1. You are to be men full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, that you may do all things in a manner acceptable to God.
  2. You are to be present every Tuesday and Thursday morning, in order to transact the temporal affairs of the society.
  3. You are to begin and end every meeting with earnest prayer unto God for a blessing on all your undertakings.
  4. You are to produce your accounts the first Tuesday in every month, that they may be transcribed into the ledger.
  5. You are to take it in turn, month by month, to be chairman. The chairman is to see that all the rules be punctually observed, and immediately to check him who breaks any of them.
  6. You are to do nothing without the consent of the minister, either actually had or reasonably presumed.
  7. You are to consider, whenever you meet, ‘God is here.’ Therefore be deeply serious; utter no trifling word; speak as in His presence, and to the glory of His great name.
  8. When anything is debated, let one at once stand up and speak, the rest giving attention. And let him speak just loud enough to be heard, in love and in the spirit of meekness.
  9. You are continually to pray and endeavour that a holy harmony of soul may in all things subsist among you; that in every step you may ‘keep the unity of the Spirit, in the bond of peace.’
  10. In all debates you are to watch over your spirits, avoiding, as fire, all clamour and contention, being ‘swift to hear, slow to speak’; in honour every man preferring another before himself.
  11. If you cannot relieve, do not grieve, the poor. Give them soft words, if nothing else; abstain from either sour looks or harsh words. Let them be glad to come, even though they should go empty away. Put yourself in the place of every poor man, and deal with him as you would God should deal with you.

These instructions we whose names are under-written (being the present stewards of the society at London) do heartily receive, and earnestly desire to conform to. In witness whereof we have set our hands.

N.B. If any Steward shall break any of the preceding rules, after having been thrice admonished by the chairman (whereof notice is to be immediately given the minister), he is no longer steward.

Sermon at St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church, Suva, Fiji (13 November 2016)

Readings for Twenty-Sixth Sunday after Pentecost:

  • Isaiah 65:17-25
  • Isaiah 12
  • Malachi 4:1-2a
  • Psalm 98
  • 2 Thessalonians 3:6-13
  • Luke 21:5-19

 

In two weeks time we begin the Christian season of Advent. This season is when Christians prepare for the arrival of their savior Jesus Christ. We eagerly look forward to Christmas as a time of celebration and gift giving. And the end of another year will be greeted by many as relief from the tumult of 2016.

But if you are like me, you are already breathing a sigh of relief for those things which have been completed recently, like the end of the academic year. Finally, students and teachers can catch up with friends and housework, and some of us will be looking forward to returning to families and friends in our home islands. Congratulations to all graduates and those who just completed their exams.

So in Advent, we await the arrival of our Lord and Savior who will come to deliver us and set us free. But in the meantime, we must finish our exams, make travel plans, and do all those day-to-day things which keep life moving forward for ourselves, our families, and the others who depend on us in the workplace and home. This is not simply how we live our daily lives, but also how live our Christian faith – working and struggling day-by-day, but also with keen anticipation of the Kingdom of God to come.

In the last week, Americans have already experienced the end of a season like Advent, the period of waiting to see who their new President would be. For some, the election of the Republican Party candidate Donald Trump was a catastrophe, while for others it delivers something like a savior figure.

This election has dominated the news for months. With President Obama being ineligible for re-election, both the Democratic and Republican Parties had to find candidates to contest this election.

Trump’s election as the Republican nominee and then election to the presidency has shocked the world. Many people are asking: “Is the best person American can find to run their country?” Prophets of doom see this as the end of the world, or the end of the United States as we know it.

For our region, it is not yet known what Trump’s presidency will bring. His international relations policy is not well thought out or known, but it is starting to be revealed. But two things seem likely:

  • Trump has said that climate change is a hoax by the Chinese. This cannot be taken too literally – it is surely an example of nasty election rhetoric designed to be anti-Chinese, while appealing to uneducated climate deniers for votes. Nonetheless, his approach to climate change is not encouraging. And the Pacific region, being very vulnerable to the effects of more intense cyclones and sea-level rise, needs to be very concerned.
  • Secondly, Trump is anti-globalization. He is against free-trade and movement of jobs to other countries. This might mean that Pacific countries find it harder to sell their goods to America. This might hurt the Pacific’s export industries. However, if this move by Trump curtails global trade, then it might have a small positive result for climate change.

But my task this morning is not to offer political analysis, but to examine our scripture readings to see what light the light of God can shed on our new global political situation.

Our scripture readings this morning are timely reminders of both catastrophes Christians can expect to live through and God’s peaceable Kingdom.

Beginning with our reading from Isaiah 65, we have a radical vision of peace and harmony; one which continues to offer hope in troubled times.

Isaiah says:

“For I am about to create new heavens and a new earth; the former things shall not be remembered.”

In this new earth we find the famous image of the wolf and the lamb feeding together. That is Isaiah’s vision of God’s new rule of the world.

From Donald Trump’s rhetoric we might find a distortion of this. Trump might say:

“For I am about to create a new America; the former things of Obama shall not be remembered”.

Isaiah goes on to say, in a vision of economic sovereignty:

“They shall build houses and inhabit them; they shall plant vineyards and eat their fruit. They shall not build and another inhabit; they shall not plant and another eat”.

But Trump would say:

“Americans shall build houses and inhabit them (not immigrants); they shall plant vineyards and eat their fruit (not import grapes from Mexico)”

I admit that this is a somewhat playful approach to reading scripture and applying it to today’s political situation. But sadly today, much of our political language is a distortion of our theological language and Christian truths. This is a trap for Christians, as what sounds like biblical Christian teaching can be subtly distorted for political ends.

In Isaiah’s vision, it is God alone who establishes peace and harmony. It is not the construction of any human ruler, but it is God’s new creation by God’s own initiative. It cannot be achieved by any Presidential election or governmental decree. God’s new creation is from God alone. We must not confuse it with anything worldly politics can achieve.

The Psalm set for today – Psalm 98 – also celebrates God’s rule. Looking at God’s divine rule, which we can glimpse through the Psalms and others parts of the Bible, has inspired Christian rulers across the ages for their own rule.

Psalm 98 speaks of the universality of God’s rule –  God rules over all the earth. God’s rule transcends national boundaries and is not limited to one people, nation, or region. The God of Israel is the God of the whole earth. This God rules all, and will come to judge all.

Again, we can contrast God’s rule with the earthly ruler, who by necessity and design, rules just for the interests of their nation, and sometimes only in the interests of certain classes or races. The worst rulers rule predominantly in their own interest.

God’s judgment, the model for sound political judgment, is equitable and righteous. This is God’s justice, which will be fully revealed when God comes to rule. This is our expectation and our hope. In the times before that final judgment, we can hope that our leaders take note and judge in the way they would like to be judged by God. Sadly many, if not most, of our rulers, even Christian ones, fall well short of this ideal.

This vision of final judgment at the end of times may seem far off in the future. But for those in the Pacific facing the impact of climate change and the destruction of our fisheries and forests, it can appear that the end times are drawing close.

Christ paints a picture of the end times – with times of conflict, war, and persecution – in our reading from Luke this morning. Luke’s vision of persecution is a reminder of God’s care for us and a further reminder of the differences between earthly rule and God’s rule.

In the face of conflict with authorities, who violently persecute them, Christians are not to defend themselves using violence. Or even prepare elaborate spoken defenses. Their only defense is the word that comes from God. Against the kings and governors and their prisons, we have the word of God. That word, with its power to create and destroy, is more powerful than death. Jesus reassures us that in any battle with political power, we may die, but we will not perish.

Our identity as Christians and followers of Christ does not permit violence against those who make an enemy of us, but ultimate victory over them is assured.

Some would say that an alternative politics of identity can be seen in the recent developments in the United Kingdom with its vote to leave the European Union and in the election of Trump.

This is seen in the slogans “England for the English”, and “America for the Americans”, and in Australia in the resurgence of Pauline Hanson’s One Nation party. These events are united by an identity politics of exclusion of the outsider, whereby race and ethnicity and language groups seek to claim some status that defines who is in and who is out.

This is the politics of nativism – an ideology which favors the local people or natives over those who are outside. For some, this is a necessary correction, in which locals or indigenous people can reassert their power against globalization or even imperialism. But in other ways, these categories are reinforced and entrench divisions between people, that some people are worth more than others.

In the wake of the Brexit vote and Trump’s election, the UK and the USA have seen violence against minority groups in these countries escalate. Brexit and Trump’s rise to power have given implicit permission for hate to rise in the hearts of men and women. The haters have been emboldened by leaders who wish to throw out the constraints of human decency and compassion and appeal to the lowest base urges of human behavior.

In the Pacific, we might think ourselves isolated from these sorts of events. But we need to be vigilant that the politics of hate and exclusion do not take root in our countries. For almost 30 years Fiji has witnessed harmful identity politics of race and exclusion.

With perceived threats to the Pacific way of life from globalization or neo-colonization and environmental harm, it becomes easy to focus blame for political corruption and economic exploitation on outsiders and their perverse cultures. It would be tempting to find one’s identity in opposition to the forces of modernity globalization in nationalism and a retreat into one’s culture.

But, the feeling that our lives would be better without the outsider and that we don’t need them is a sinful temptation. Christianity teaches the universal brotherhood and sisterhood of humanity. We need the other in order to show love. Without someone to love we cannot uphold Christ’s commandment to love our neighbor. It is easy to return love to those who love us. But as Jesus says there is no merit in that. Christ-like love loves the neighbor and even our enemies. We do not have love unless we can do that.

Christ himself associated himself with the tax collector and collaborators with Roman occupying powers. In doing so, he transformed them and his identity was itself transformed at times by encountering the outsider.

Our trust in God’s word and Jesus’ command is the basis of our identity as Christians. Our identity as Christians, Christ warns his listeners, comes from his name, as it says in Luke 21:17. This identity can put us into conflict with religious authorities, political authorities and even our cultures, as represented by our “relatives and friends” (21:16).

Our Christian identity is one we should be proud to have and one that makes other identities secondary. We have our identity in Christ.

Part of the Christian identity relates to fear. Two of our readings this morning tell us not to be afraid. Isaiah 12:2 reminds us that surely God is our salvation. We will trust in God, and will not be afraid. And in Luke’s gospel (21:9), Christ tells us not to be terrified of wars and insurrections, because they will pass and soon afterwards, Christ will return.

It is difficult not to be afraid for those things we hold dear in times of trouble. People’s lives are at risk from the forces unleashed by Trump’s election and Brexit. They are afraid and justifiably so. What word does the church have for them? When people’s lives are in danger, pious platitudes will not do. We need to speak and act in ways that show our hatred of evil and our love of others.

Christ’s words from Luke are reassuring, when he indicates that this time will pass. But the question for us is: “How shall Christians pass this time?” Shall we pass it behind locked doors and gated compounds? Shall we pass it in isolation from minority groups who are suffering the outpouring of hate, such as Muslims, homosexuals, and immigrants?

No We shall pass that time alongside them as neighbors and friends. Christians cannot sit aside and allow hate to win. Christians must be prepared to be among the hated, rather than among the haters.

Therein lies our imitation of Christ in these troubled times when politicians wish to build walls to exclude and shame others in need. That is the identity we are given through our baptism into the church of Jesus Christ, and one that we share with Christians of all colors and nations.

Amen.

Reflection in PTC Chapel – 1 August 2016

Reading – Isaiah 1:1, 10–20

1 The vision of Isaiah son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.

10 Hear the word of the Lord,
you rulers of Sodom!
Listen to the teaching of our God,
you people of Gomorrah!
11 What to me is the multitude of your sacrifices?
says the Lord;
I have had enough of burnt-offerings of rams
and the fat of fed beasts;
I do not delight in the blood of bulls,
or of lambs, or of goats.
12 When you come to appear before me,
who asked this from your hand?
Trample my courts no more;
13 bringing offerings is futile;
incense is an abomination to me.
New moon and sabbath and calling of convocation—
I cannot endure solemn assemblies with iniquity.
14 Your new moons and your appointed festivals
my soul hates;
they have become a burden to me,
I am weary of bearing them.
15 When you stretch out your hands,
I will hide my eyes from you;
even though you make many prayers,
I will not listen;
your hands are full of blood.
16 Wash yourselves; make yourselves clean;
remove the evil of your doings
from before my eyes;
cease to do evil,
17   learn to do good;
seek justice,
rescue the oppressed,
defend the orphan,
plead for the widow.

18 Come now, let us argue it out,
says the Lord:
though your sins are like scarlet,
they shall be like snow;
though they are red like crimson,
they shall become like wool.
19 If you are willing and obedient,
you shall eat the good of the land;
20 but if you refuse and rebel,
you shall be devoured by the sword;
for the mouth of the Lord has spoken.

Reflection

I was not scheduled to be doing chapel today and this is not the scheduled reading either. The original reading assigned for today was one on which I have already preached, so I swapped it for this one from Isaiah.

I imagine that this is not a popular reading in the church, but I assure you that it’s on the lectionary. The reasons why I think this reading is not popular should be self-evident. Why should we gather to worship and praise God and then read that God hates our “solemn assemblies”?

Another reason this text might not be popular is that it might be described as self-preaching – in other words it is a text that preaches itself. The message appears so obvious that, once read, the preacher is left with little to do. But is that really the case?

The prophet does not begin with niceties; he starts by addressing the people as the rulers of Sodom and the people of Gomorrah. These are terms of abuse. Yet this form of address sums up the message; these are people for whom condemnation is coming. The people of Sodom and Gomorrah were burnt up for their sins. It is worth remembering what sins they were guilty of. To jog our memories, we turn to Ezekiel 16:49, which reads:

“This was the guilt of your sister Sodom: she and her daughters had pride, excess of food, and prosperous ease, but did not aid the poor and needy.”

This sets the tone and outlines the message to come, that combining pride and vanity with disregard for the poor and needy is sure to gain God’s condemnation.
God rejects the sacrifices of such people. Their feasts are worthless. Their worship meaningless.

The temptation we all face, reading this in our own solemn assembly, is to read this as God addressing bad people who have turned away and who yet strive to be justified by God through worship, rituals and sacrifices and nice words about God. Such harsh judgments are not for us; they are for other so-called “Christians” who have blood on their hands and do not worship with a good clean conscience. We are better than them surely? Aren’t we?

Let’s read further. In verse 12 God speaks “When you come to appear before me”. This is indicative of the attitude of the hypocrites. They come to appear before God as though God is somewhere where we can go to present ourselves to God. But God does not live in some temple or church. God is everywhere, and sees our corruption day by day. God sees both the bad we do and good we left undone.

God also sees how we try to present ourselves in church on Sunday, wearing our best clothes and carrying our Bibles as though God will be pleased that we have ironed our shirt or dress, placed some money in the collection plate, and sung in the choir.

No! God is not impressed by our staged appearances. We are before God all the time. What, then, is the point of all these pretensions and posturing before God?

Is it self-justification? Are we trying to cover up our sins? If so, we take the Lord’s name in vain – we utter the right words, but have instrumentalized worship and in doing so we reduce God to be something less than God. If we do this, we are trusting in our works and deeds more than God. And we have created a reason for worshiping God.

This is should be a great caution in our nations today. There are false prophets and pastors offering reasons to come to their church. “Come to my church and be blessed”, they might say. Or, “Come to my church and be healed”, or “Come and gain a new purpose in life”.

But the truth is that we cannot make true worship serve us and our needs; true worship serves only God, it cannot be made by humans into something that benefits us. To make ourselves into the end or point of worship, inevitably means turning God into a mere means.

This does not mean that we cannot enjoy worship or that we get nothing out of it. But anything we get from worship must not be sought intentionally, even with a good will. Anything we gain from worship must come as the free gift we receive from God when we serve and worship him alone. It cannot be promised, anticipated, or manufactured in advance.

Further on, we read that “bringing offerings is futile; incense is an abomination to me.” Here we see God making a double criticism of our worship.

Bringing our offerings to God is important. It helps the church and the needy, and puts money in its rightful place as something we can freely part with. But if we are giving to bribe God to turn a blind eye to our sins, we are fools. We cannot bribe God. God sees through such shallowness. God doesn’t want or need our money. God wants our lives. As Jesus said, we should love God with all our heart and with all our soul and with all our mind (Matthew 22:37). In other words God wants our whole being to be be focused on God.

Incense, as used in worship, is sometimes thought of as carrying our prayers up to God. But the real use of incense was to mask the stench of a sinful humanity. But incense cannot disguise our sin from God. God sees our sinful hearts directly and cannot be deceived in this way. Incense cannot shield the stench of our hypocrisy or be a smoke screen to hide our iniquities. To think we can hide our sins from God is to only fool ourselves.

When we persist in our hypocrisy God even indicates that God will turn away from our us, even if we reach out to God and say our pious prayers. God will fall silent in face of our hypocritical piety.

But we should not despair, God’s silence can be broken when we return to God in due humility. We can and must try to break God’s silence toward us through repentance and true worship.

How can we do that? In verse 16 we see God demand that we clean ourselves up before he will turn to us. We must repent. The verse reads “Wash yourselves; make yourselves clean”.

This poses a theological problem. Can we really cleanse ourselves in such a way as to be acceptable to God? Christians usually say that we are washed clean in our baptism, or by the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross. Isn’t it Christ alone who can wash us clean and make us whole?

Christianity rejects the idea that we can reach up to God through any human means. This is what seems to be denied by the first half of our reading which condemns our human efforts at self-justification. Rather God reaches down to us to bring us to him.

Martin Luther, no fan of salvation through works, simply states that this verse says that we should follow the advice of the Psalmist in 37:27: “Depart from evil, and do good”.

That is what is required. We clean ourselves up by turning from evil and doing good. And we can always make a fresh start in doing so. We must turn from evil. That is the first step – do no harm and refrain from evil. But this is not enough. We must pursue the good and justice. This is obedience to God.

Well I could end here and my message would have been simply that we ought to worship with right intention, avoid evil and do good. We might add at this point that the ancient Israelites were foolish to try to justify themselves and deceive God. We might be tempted to think that we are better than them. But before we pat ourselves on the back, we should make sure that we don’t commit a worse sin.

In their attempts to be justified, the Israelites were addressing God, and in doing so were at least recognizing God’s importance. A potentially worse sin is when we try to justify ourselves in the eyes of other people. It is one thing to try to justify oneself before God. It is worse to ignore God and try to justify oneself before one’s peers, leaving God out of the picture altogether. This happens when we try to keep up appearances and live in line with human values and rules. But adherence to cultural and social norms which place us right in the eyes of our neighbor does not put us right with God.

God is not deceived by this posture. It creates another god to which we give all of our selves. This god could be culture, money, technology, or work. But neither God nor society are deceived by this stance either.

Let’s focus on the one true God with our whole being, avoid evil and do as much good as we can under the continual guidance on God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

Amen.

Research into Climate Change and Democracy in Fiji

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I have been invited to deliver a conference paper at the triennial consultation of the Global Network for Public Theology in Stellenbosch, South Africa. The conference dates are 24-26 October 2016.

The theme of their meeting is “Democracy and Social Justice in Glocal Contexts“. The details of my proposed paper are:

PAPER TITLE

Public Theology in the Context of Climate Change and Fiji’s Unchanging State of Exception

ABSTRACT

Applying the theory of the “state of exception” from Carl Schmitt and Giorgio Agamben to Fijian public life, this paper examines whether the crisis of climate change facing this island nation could strengthen the case for the Fijian government’s current state of exception to the detriment of constitutional democracy.

Following democratic elections in 2014, the international community once again recognizes Fiji as formally democratic. Yet the constitution sometimes finds itself overruled in favour of decrees made by the government of former coup-maker and elected Prime Minister Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama. In this way, Fiji public life lies suspended in a “state of exception” between democracy and dictatorship.

Fiji is also facing the effects of climate change, which may include sea-level rise, more devastating cyclones, and lessened food security. In February 2016, Fiji was hit by Tropical Cyclone Winston, which claimed 44 lives and destroyed more than 40,000 homes. In the wake of Winston, the government declared a temporary state of emergency and imposed curfews. This paper investigates whether the ongoing and increasing threat of climate change to Fiji may reinforce or strengthen the exceptional nature of Fijian political life, giving further reasons for additional decrees and the continued denial of full democratic rule.

Finally, the paper will examine what prospects there are for public theology in this political atmosphere. Some people see climate change as something that only states can deal with adequately and are willing to give the state increased power to do so. Public theology might suggest that the issue of climate illustrates state failure and offers great potential for the church, as a leading actor in Fijian society, to do public theology in such a way that deals with climate also as a faith issue, and in this way decentralize the Fijian response to this threat.

Support Me

If you would like to support this research then I have a page where you can make a donation toward my expenses to present this research.

Reflection in PTC Chapel – 2 May 2016

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Paul and Silas in Philippi – Pieter de With

 Reading – Acts 16:16–34 (NRSV)

16 One day, as we were going to the place of prayer, we met a slavegirl who had a spirit of divination and brought her owners a great deal of money by fortune-telling. 17 While she followed Paul and us, she would cry out, “These men are slaves of the Most High God, who proclaim to you a way of salvation.” 18 She kept doing this for many days. But Paul, very much annoyed, turned and said to the spirit, “I order you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her.” And it came out that very hour.

19 But when her owners saw that their hope of making money was gone, they seized Paul and Silas and dragged them into the marketplace before the authorities. 20 When they had brought them before the magistrates, they said, “These men are disturbing our city; they are Jews 21 and are advocating customs that are not lawful for us as Romans to adopt or observe.” 22 The crowd joined in attacking them, and the magistrates had them stripped of their clothing and ordered them to be beaten with rods. 23 After they had given them a severe flogging, they threw them into prison and ordered the jailer to keep them securely. 24 Following these instructions, he put them in the innermost cell and fastened their feet in the stocks.

25 About midnight Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns to God, and the prisoners were listening to them. 26 Suddenly there was an earthquake, so violent that the foundations of the prison were shaken; and immediately all the doors were opened and everyone’s chains were unfastened. 27 When the jailer woke up and saw the prison doors wide open, he drew his sword and was about to kill himself, since he supposed that the prisoners had escaped. 28 But Paul shouted in a loud voice, “Do not harm yourself, for we are all here.” 29 The jailer called for lights, and rushing in, he fell down trembling before Paul and Silas. 30 Then he brought them outside and said, “Sirs, what must I do to be saved?” 31 They answered, “Believe on the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household.” 32 They spoke the word of the Lord to him and to all who were in his house. 33 At the same hour of the night he took them and washed their wounds; then he and his entire family were baptized without delay. 34 He brought them up into the house and set food before them; and he and his entire household rejoiced that he had become a believer in God.

Reflection

Our long reading this morning begins with an exorcism of a demon from the slave girl, features a court trial, jail scene, earthquake, dramatic conversion, and ends with a household baptism.

It is an exhausting text to read and hear. More happens in these few verses than happens in my life in weeks.

This morning, however, I wish to focus on the exorcism of the demon from the slave girl.

I find this passage very curious, as have many others. We note that Paul does not cast out the demon when he first encounters the girl. He only casts out the demon once he becomes annoyed. And then he impatiently exorcises the demon. Why does he do so? Is he annoyed with her calling out, or is he concerned with her claims about their God?

Both of these two possibilities focus on her effect on Paul. On the face of it, there is good reason to do so, as Paul is very much annoyed. But, one would have to infer, in the absence of any precise textual evidence, about what Paul was very much annoyed with.

Perhaps a better question could be asked: “Who was Paul annoyed with?” Was he annoyed with the girl? Or, was he annoyed with the demon, who might be said to posses the girl, and control her? A third possibility also exists: Paul was annoyed with the girl’s masters who possessed her in another way, and who were responsible for her being in his path on the way to prayer every day.

Perhaps Paul’s annoyance was a combination of these factors, which built up over several days. I prefer to think of Paul’s annoyance more as righteous anger at the injustice of this situation rather than petty annoyance at being followed and being shouted at. He put up with much more than that in the course of his ministry. In this light, it is interesting that the King James translation has Paul as “grieved” instead of being annoyed, suggesting he felt sorrow for the girl.

Another reason to think that the Paul’s annoyance lies in the state of affairs that affects the girl, is that in the exorcism Paul invokes the name of Christ.

There are two important points to note here about Paul casting out the demon in the name of Christ.

The first is especially important at this point in the church year at the end of Easter. Jesus has resurrected and ascended to heaven. He is not around to exorcise demons as he did when he was with the apostles. Recall that in Luke chapter 8 Jesus exorcises demons from a man and put them into the herd of swine.

No. Jesus is no longer around, but his name retains its power. Significantly, it is Paul who uses the name of the Christ here. While Paul never knew Jesus personally, he can, nevertheless, use his name to exorcise this demon. Jesus is gone, but the power of his name remains to all those who follow him. That includes us as well.

The second point to note about Paul’s use of the name of Jesus is the contrast he makes with the girl’s owners. Whereas they used a spirit and the girl to make money, Paul invoked the spirit of Christ, not for his own gain, but to liberate the girl, putting an end to exploitative moneymaking.

In doing so, Paul follows the example of Christ. For when Jesus used his powers in miracles and exorcisms, he did not do so for his own benefit, but to benefit others. For example, he did not turn stones into bread in the desert to satisfy his own hunger, but he was willing to perform the miracle of feeding the 5000. If Jesus did not use his power for himself, it is unlikely that Paul would be able to use Jesus’ name to exorcise demons merely so he could walk to a prayer meeting unmolested. No. Jesus’ name was effective for Paul because he was freeing the girl from bondage.

After Paul rids the girl of the demon, her worldly masters, having lost their source of profit, take Paul and Silas to court on trumped-up charges. They are found guilty, stripped beaten and put into prison.

Their treatment is parallel to the treatment of Christ before his crucifixion. The trial and judgment is unjust. Fortunately, they are not killed. But as at the time of the death of Jesus there is another earthquake. Instead of the temple curtain being torn in two, here the symbol of the civil authority, the prison, is torn apart and the prisoners could escape.

Paul and Silas do not escape, and by remaining put they have the chance to witness to the jailer and his entire household who were baptized that very day.

Returning to the theme of the slave girl, there is more that can be said on the alliance in the story between the exploiters of the girl and the legal authorities. Is there any more up to date tale for our time?

The exploitation of girls (and boys) is one of the tragedies of our time. Children continued to be enslaved by the greedy for the making of money.

The International Labour Organisation estimates that worldwide there are 5.5 million children in slavery, trafficking, debt bondage, forced labour, forced recruitment for armed conflict, prostitution, and pornography. [Source]

Paul frees just one child in such a situation, but sends a message of judgement against all such crimes. Yet it is he and Silas, not the slave-drivers, that end up in jail.

The fate of Paul and Silas is one that many activists have faced over the years. To interfere with the exploitation of children for the pursuit of profit is to incur is to disrupt those with earthly power. There are few things more dangerous in this world than to disrupt the flow of profits and money to the already wealthy. It does not matter whether those making money are a band of criminals, a legal corporation, or even a church. If you get in their way, there will be serious consequences.

It almost doesn’t matter what the charges were in this case as they bore no relationship to the so-called “harm” the girl’s owners had experienced.  The consequences for Paul and Silas were severe. They faced an unsympathetic court and were jailed.  Here we see the law operating in the interests of rich slave-drivers and not toward any recognizable form of justice.

This is also a factor of our world today, the law working for the rich and the powerful against the poor and the advocates of the poor and oppressed. Sadly many advocates of justice and peace are silenced and imprisoned in our world today. Often those who speak for those without a voice are killed. One estimate is that two people are killed each week defending the environment [Source].  Few of the perpetrators are brought to justice as it suits the powers in our broken world to keep making money at the expense of our children and our climate.

On Saturday, one my heroes died. Daniel Berrigan was Catholic priest and radical Christian. He became famous for his opposition to the Vietnam War and in one protest poured his own blood on military draft cards. He also initiated the modern plowshares disarmament movement. Taking the text from Isaiah 2:4, that we should beat swords into plowshares, as a command of God, Berrigan and friends broke into military bases and disarmed weapons of death and imperialism. His life’s mission was to cast out the demons of killing and violence; a mission which, upset the establishment and landed him in jail several times.

We might not have the opportunity to cast out the spirits of divination from slave girls. But as modern prophets like Berrigan, we have opportunities to resist the enslaving spirits of consumerism and violence that makes others rich and powerful.

We can also try to rid ourselves, our churches, and nations of the enslaving spirit of corruption where we invoke the name of Christ for the benefit of ourselves, rather than using the name of Christ to liberate others.

The ascended Christ is with us, supporting us and guiding us, just as he was with Paul and Silas. Our challenge is to witness to his power to transform lives and nations.

Amen.

Picture credit: https://www.pubhist.com/w8409